Tuesday, January 31, 2017

SPX vs 24th Harmonic of Mercury's Right Ascension

Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun, and named after the god of commerce, travel, and thievery in Roman mythology, the counterpart of the Greek god Hermes who also guides the souls to the underworld. Mercury is the Celtic god Lugus, the Germanic god Wotan, the old Indian god Rudra, later known as Shiva, associated with magic, poetry, and warfare. In ancient Babylon Mercury was the god Nabu, the divine scribe and god of wisdom. To the Egyptians Nabu was Tehuti, rendered by the Greeks as Thoth. Nabu was one of the major gods of Egypt and personified the principle of reason. However, Thoth had no connection with the planet Mercury until the Greeks introduced astrology to Egypt, where the planet was regarded as belonging to the god Set, while Thoth presided over the Moon. Finally Hermes Trismegistus seems to be the syncretic combination of Hermes and Thoth.  

Mercury was attributed a divine messenger due to the fast speed across the sky. Mercury attains Inferior Conjunction with the Sun (nearest approach to Earth) every 115.88 Earth days (= average Synodic Period), but this interval can range from 105 to 129 Earth days due to Mercury's eccentric orbit. Its period of retrograde motion as seen from Earth can vary from 8 to 15 days on either side of inferior conjunction. This large range arises from the planet's high orbital eccentricity. Mercury's axis has the smallest tilt of any of the Solar System's planets (about  1⁄30 degree), and its orbital eccentricity is the largest of all known planets in the Solar System. At aphelion, Mercury is about 1.5 times as far from the Sun as it is at perihelion. Because both Mercury and Earth are moving in elliptical orbits, the maximum elongation angle varies from one orbital revolution to another (HERE).

The Celestial Equator is the plane formed by the daily rotation of the Earth around its own axis. It is inclined to the Ecliptic at 23°26’. This angle changes very slowly. The position of a celestial body, e.g. Mercury, is measured with reference to the plane of the Earth’s equator. The Geocentric Equatorial Coordinate System is projecting the Earth's equator onto the celestial sphere (forming the celestial equator) with a primary direction towards the vernal equinox, and a right-handed convention. Hence the Right Ascension (in hours, minutes and seconds) is the angle of the planet in the Equator plane (RA), and the Declination shows how the planet is inclined to the Equator. 


In the above chart Mercury's Synodic Period of 105 to 129 days was divided by 24 (1 Synodic Period = 360° / 24 = 15° = 24th Harmonic). Therefore one oscillation of the Cosinus of Mercury's Right Ascension between -1 and 1 (= 15h) takes 4 to 5 Calendar Days, and considerably longer during the retrograde periods.

Challenges of the Nuclear Power Industry

Economist (Jan 30, 2017) - Building reactors is not an easy business proposition. Two recent additions to the world’s nuclear fleet, in Argentina and the United States, took 33 and 44 years to erect [...] The boom in nuclear energy began in the 1950s, when America, Russia, Britain and France rushed to develop reactor technologies for electricity generation. By the late 1970s around 230 reactors were under construction. However, following the accidents at Three Mile Island in 1979 and Chernobyl in 1986, fears about safety led governments in Europe and America to halt construction and wind down research on new civilian nuclear technology. Interest in nuclear energy did not rebound until the turn of the millennium, when concerns over securing energy supplies, reducing carbon emissions and meeting the growing demand for electricity in developing economies kick-started another wave of investment. 

[...] According to the Global Nuclear Power database, almost two-thirds of the 55 plants currently under construction are behind schedule. In Finland, France and China, all of the EPRs in progress are years behind planners′ expectations. More HERE

Stock Market Capitalization as a Percentage of GDI | 1925 - 2016

Total market capitalization (TMC) of the stock market as a percent of Gross Domestic Income (GDI) is 126%, the second highest in 100 years, only exceeded by 164% just prior to the 2000 tech bubble. This highlights the extreme extent of stock market distortion, which can largely be attributed to artificially low interest rates. Because stocks are an unusually large percentage of the economy, a stock market correction would undoubtedly stunt economic growth. Because the market is so high relative to GDI, corrections will have a greater negative impact on the economy. Furthermore, this ratio's lofty level illustrates just how overbought the stock market is in general, signaling the potentially precarious state of the markets (Chart: Ned Davis Research).

Sunday, January 29, 2017

A Theory of Astrology | L. Edward Johndro

In the 1930s electrical engineer and astrologer L. Edward Johndro (1882-1951) and astrologer Charles Jayne (1911-1985) simultaneously contributed to the development of the GEM Theory (Gravity, Electrical, Magnetism). In 1929 Johndro presented his Theory of Astrology as follows:

“Tesla demonstrated years ago that the earth is at a relatively constant electrical potential or charge of some seven million volts. It may now be accepted that all material bodies are in a state of relative charge, negative or positive, with respect to each other - man, atoms, earth, planets and stars, and that this manifests as love, cohesion, magnetism or gravitation, or their wholly illusionary opposite (repulse), according as the law manifests in a magnitude series ranging from the microcosm to the macrocosm.

[...] We cannot escape the fact that the earth is a charged body at a potential of millions or volts, nor can we easily escape the conclusion that the other planets are in a state of high charge. While that man is a charged body, with an accompanying electromagnetic field, is easily demonstrated by countless experiments [...] Suns and stars (not planets) are radioactive [...] they emit electromagnetic waves which, because of their exceedingly high frequency, we term light [...] The sun and stars, the planets, the earth, and man upon the earth are charged bodies, and that all their accompanying electromagnetic fields intersect and interact.

[...] The planets reflect light waves and they each, have a different natural frequency of oscillatory response to the solar and stellar light waves which constantly bombard them (consequently their reflected light is variously tinted) and that the phase angles of their field couplings, as their relative movements in space change them, changes the power factor at these frequencies; accept also the fact that these planetary frequencies, being of a far lower order than those of the sun and stars-a mere octave of lower harmonics, since they emit no light of their own, are within the range of man's sensibilities to subconsciously detect and respond to

[...] The solar waves continually directly bombard half the earth [...] they are also reflected to the earth by the Moon and planets [...] These waves constantly interact with the earth's electromagnetic field [...] as the inductive couplings of the earth, sun and planets change their mutual angular relations in space.

Sun, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto and Earth each
have a surrounding interactive sphere. These spheres have magnetic poles. At the magnetic
poles there can be auroral ovals. One auroral oval sits above the attracting magnetically
negative pole and the other above the discharging magnetically positive pole. The discharge
travels through open space. It follows the path of least resistance and greatest attraction
to cover vast distances while creating continuous waves in the yielding dark and cold medium
of interplanetary space. The discharge energy from a planet is drawn in by Earth’s magnetic field
and enters Earth’s environmental sphere. Some energy is visible light. Some become

quarks and hadrons and neutrons and protons, and hydrogen atoms a universal building block
that interacts with the nitrogen rich atoms of Earth’s atmospheric environment. Electron
beams from interplanetary space hit Earth along a ring shaped oval where cathode rays
interact with high speed electrons. This creates an electrical discharge powered by the
solar wind that interacts with the magnetosphere. Solar wind and the effects of solar
discharges upon the solar wind create a pressurizing mechanism for the continuous auroral
flow at the negative (incoming) pole that will contain travelling matter and unique
signatures from all of the planets in our solar system. On Earth, the planetary discharges
arrive channelled by the magnetic field and are drawn through the negative auroral oval and
through electromagnetic commonality and through biophysical processes are acted upon
by human beings.

Saturday, January 28, 2017

Behind the Bipartisan Wall | Manlio Dinucci

The US is about to face the worst crisis of their history (HERE)
Manlio Dinucci (Jan 28, 2017) - Extending the Wall separating the United States and Mexico: the Western press condemns it, leaving no ground for appeal. Manlio Dinucci on the other hand, recalls that far from resulting from a desire to protect and erect barriers, it is the product of a policy to globalize and dismantle barriers. This construction is a bi-partisan project, initiated by Bill Clinton, followed up by George Bush Jr and then by Barack Obama. Dinucci observes that it is NAFTA not the Wall that is responsible for the devastating effects that have rippled through Mexican society. NAFTA was conceived as a bridge between the three signatory states. It is a treaty which strives to broaden the normal process of delocalization yet carries the risk of poverty spreading [like an Albertan wildfire] in Mexico and then the United States [...] Mexico’s market is swamped with US and Canadian goods, the production of which is subsidized by the state, enabling them to be sold at low prices. This has caused agricultural production to collapse with devastating social effects for the rural population. This enables the formation of a pool of cheap labour, whose members are recruited by factories (maquiladoras): thousands of industrial plants along the border of the Mexican territory are owned and controlled largely by US companies. More HERE

SPX vs True Lunar Node Speed | February 2017

Upcoming Signal Days and potential Market Turn Days:
Jan 28 (Sat), Feb 02 (Thu), Feb 09 (Thu), Feb 15 (Wed), Feb 21 (Tue), Feb 24 (Fri), Mar 02 (Thu), Mar 08 (Wed).

SPX vs Mercury – Venus Cycle | February 2017

Upcoming Cycle Aspects and potential Market Turn Days:
Jan 28 (Sat), Feb 16 (Thu), Feb 24 (Fri), Mar 02 (Thu), Mar 11 (Sat).

SPX vs Jupiter – Saturn Cycle | February 2017

Upcoming Turn Days are: 
Jan 26 (Thu), Feb 01 (Wed), Feb 09 (Thu), Feb 19 (Sun), Feb 21 (Tue), Feb 23 (Thu), Mar 02 (Thu).

Cosmic Cluster Days | February — March 2017

The basic assumption here is that heliocentric and geocentric angles between planets are related to financial market movements. A signal is triggered when the composite line of all aspects breaks above or below the Average Cosmic Noise Channel. Upcoming Cosmic Cluster Days (CCDs) are: Jan 25 (Wed), Feb 08 (Wed), Mar 05 (Sun), Mar 07 (Tue), Mar 13 (Mon), Mar 14 (Tue), Mar 18 (Sat), Mar 20 (Mon), Mar 23 (Thu), Mar 26 (Sun), Apr 06 (Thu). Previous CCDs are HERE

SPX vs Cosmic Cluster Days | February 2017 | Review & Preview

SoLunar Map | February — March 2017

This chart depicts the SoLunar bias for short-term movements of stock indices two months ahead. The markets are certainly influenced also by other planetary forces - especially longer-term - but a 3-5 day short-term rhythm and pattern is governed by the SoLunar forces (= 4 highs and 4 lows per lunar month). The SoLunar forces are a composite of Sun-Moon angles, orbital eccentricities, declinations and some long-term cycles. A Low in the SoLunar Map frequently is a High in the stock market and vice versa. Inversions occur, and if so, they should occur only once every 4 lunar months around a New Moon (max +/- 7 days). The SoLunar Rhythm is frequently disturbed by (1.) the FED, and (2.) by sudden solar activity, altering the geomagnetic field, and hence the mass mood. This can result in the skip and/or inversion of pivots in the SoLunar Map. An increasing number of sunspots and flares have usually a negative influence on the stock market some 48 hours later, and vice versa (Ap values > 10 are usually short-term negative). A rising blue line in the SoLunar Map means the bias for the market is side-ways-to-up, and vice versa. Highs and lows in the SoLunar Map also may coincide with the start and termination of complex, side-ways correction patterns like zig-zags, triangles or flags. 
Upcoming SoLunar Turn-Days are: Jan 31 (Tue), Feb 04 (Sat), Feb 07 (Tue), Feb 10 (Fri) = Penumbral Lunar Eclipse, Feb 14 (Tue), Feb 18 (Sat), Feb 22 (Wed), Feb 26 (Sun) = Annular Solar Eclipse, Mar 01 (Wed), Mar 05 (Sun), Mar 05 (Sun), Mar 09 (Thu), Mar 12 (Sun), Mar 16 (Thu), Mar 20 (Mon), Mar 24 (Fri), Mar 27 (Mon), Mar 31 (Fri), Apr 03 (Mon). Previous SoLunar Maps HERE

SPX vs SoLunar Map | February 2017 | Review & Preview

Saturday, January 21, 2017

SPX vs Mercury 0° and 180° Jupiter and Saturn | George Bayer

Upcoming events:
2017 Jan 16 (Mon) 17:50 = JUP 000 MER [H]
2017 Feb 09 (Thu) 00:46 = SAT 000 MER [H]
2017 Mar 13 (Mon) 12:10 = JUP 180 MER [H]
2017 Mar 24 (Fri) 01:49 = SAT 180 MER [H]
2017 Apr 16 (Sun) 14:49 = JUP 000 MER [H]
2017 May 08 (Mon) 11:23 = SAT 000 MER [H]
2017 Jun 10 (Sat) 05:41 = JUP 180 MER [H]
2017 Jun 20 (Tue) 11:12 = SAT 180 MER [H]
2017 Jul 15 (Sat) 14:08 = JUP 000 MER [H]
2017 Aug 05 (Sat) 09:55 = SAT 000 MER [H]
2017 Sep 07 (Thu) 10:14 = JUP 180 MER [H]
2017 Sep 16 (Sat) 20:34 = SAT 180 MER [H]
2017 Oct 13 (Fri) 15:51 = JUP 000 MER [H]
2017 Nov 02 (Thu) 08:19 = SAT 000 MER [H]
2017 Dec 05 (Tue) 13:59 = JUP 180 MER [H]
2017 Dec 14 (Thu) 05:58 = SAT 180 MER [H]
2018 Jan 11 (Thu) 19:57 = JUP 000 MER [H]

Friday, January 20, 2017

The Fading American Dream | Trends in Absolute Income Mobility since 1940

Raj Chetty et al. (NBER Working Paper No. 22910 | Dec 2016) - One of the defining features of the “American Dream” is the ideal that children have a higher standard of living than their parents. When children are asked to assess their economic progress, they frequently compare their own standard of living to that of their parents. 

Such measures of absolute income mobility – the fraction of children earning or consuming more than their parents – are also often the focus of policy makers when judging the degree of economic opportunity in the U.S. 

Around 90% of children born in 1940 across the entire income distribution earned more than their parents did at age 30. That percentage dropped each decade, with only about 50% of children born in 1980 earning more than their parents. The likelihood that children at age 30 had a higher inflation-adjusted income than their parents did when they were the same age has been dropping over the last several decades.

DJIA Performance during Presidential Terms | 1900-2017

Bespoke (Jan 19, 2017) - Through Thursday, the DJIA is up over 148% (not including dividends) since the close on [Obama's] Inauguration Day 2009, and that ranks as the fourth best return for the DJIA under any President since 1900. Calvin Coolidge presided over a gain of 251.7% during his time in office [...] followed by Clinton (227%), and FDR (197%) [...] Hoover presided over a decline of over 80% [...] the second George Bush saw the DJIA fall 22%.

Monday, January 16, 2017

An Aging World | Population Age 65+ in 2015 and 2050

Source: US Census
The social and economic implications of an aging population are becoming increasingly apparent in many industrialized nations around the globe. With populations in places such as North America, Western Europe and Japan aging more rapidly than ever before, policymakers are confronted with several interrelated issues, including a decline in the working-age population, increased health care costs, unsustainable pension commitments and changing demand drivers within the economy. These issues could significantly undermine the high living standard enjoyed in many advanced economies. 

As of December 2015, people 65 or older account for more than 20% of the total population in only three countries: Germany, Italy and Japan. This figure is expected to rise to 13 countries by 2020. A rapidly aging population means there are fewer working-age people in the economy. This leads to a supply shortage of qualified workers, making it more difficult for businesses to fill in-demand roles. An economy that cannot fill in-demand occupations faces adverse consequences, including declining productivity, higher labor costs, delayed business expansion and reduced international competitiveness. In some instances, a supply shortage may push up wages, thereby causing wage inflation and creating a vicious cycle of price/wage spiral.

Japan is home to the oldest citizenry in the world, with 26.3%
of its population being 65 years of age or older. The population
aged 15 to 64 fell by 4% between 2000 and 2010
(World Bank).
To compensate, many countries look to immigration to keep their labor forces well supplied. While countries such as Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom are attracting more highly skilled immigrants, integrating them into the workforce can be a challenge because domestic employers may not recognize immigrant credentials and work experience, especially if they were obtained in countries outside of North America, Western Europe and Australia.

Given that demand for health care rises with age, countries with rapidly aging populations must allocate more money and resources to their health care systems. With health care spending as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) already high in most advanced economies, it is difficult to increase spending while ensuring care improves and other social needs do not deteriorate in the case of publicly funded or government-administered health care systems. Additionally, the health care sector in many advanced economies faces similar issues, including labor and skills shortages, increased demand for home care and the need to invest in new technologies. All of these cost escalators make it more difficult for existing systems to handle the increased prevalence of chronic diseases, let alone sufficiently address the needs of large and growing senior populations. 

Countries with large elderly populations depend on smaller pools of workers in which to collect taxes to pay for higher health costs, pension benefits and other publicly funded programs. This is becoming more common in advanced economies where retirees live on fixed incomes with much smaller tax brackets than workers. The combination of lower tax revenue and higher spending commitments on health care, pension and other benefits is a major concern for advanced industrialized nations. Source: Investopedia. See also HERE

Thursday, January 12, 2017

Obama the War Criminal, Butcherer of Women and Children

The nobel peace prize winner is waving good-bye - here at
the conclusion of his remarks to U.S. troops at Bagram 
Airfield, Afghanistan, Sunday, May 25, 2014 (Pete Souza).
Paul Craig Roberts (Jan 11, 2017) - There is no doubt that US President Barack Obama is a war criminal, as are his military and intelligence officials and most of the House and Senate. Obama is the first president to keep the US at war for the entirety of his eight-year regime. During 2016 alone, the US dropped 26,171 bombs on wedding parties, funerals, kid’s soccer games, hospitals, schools, people in their homes and walking their streets, and farmers tilling their fields in seven countries: Iraq, Syria, Afghanistan, Libya, Yemen, Somalia and Pakistan.

What does the administration have to show for eight years of illegal military interventions in seven countries, none of which comprised a danger to the US and against none of which the US has declared war? Terrorism was created by US invasions, no wars have been won, and the Middle East has been consumed in chaos and destruction. Worldwide hatred of the United States has risen to a record high. The US is now the most despised country on earth.

[...] The questions are: If Trump becomes president, will Washington’s massive crimes against humanity continue? If so, will the rest of the world continue to tolerate Washington’s extraordinary evil?

Monday, January 9, 2017

SPX vs 4.5 Degree Steps of Lunar Node to Lunar Apogee | 80th Harmonic

Upcoming aspects in this 18 Year Cycle:
Feb 04 (Sat) = 85.5 degrees, Mar 14 (Tue) =  90 degrees, Apr 13 (Thu), May 07 (Sun), May 26 (Fri),
Jun 19 (Mon), Jul 16 (Sun), Aug 22 (Tue), Sep 25 (Mon), Oct 21 (Sat), Nov 12 (Sun), Dec 02 (Sat),
Dec 26 (Tue), 2018 Jan 29 (Mon) = 144 degrees. See also HERE

Sunday, January 8, 2017

Ball Lightning, Oilfields and Earthquakes | Valentino Straser

In the Po Valley Plain area of Northern Italy the recurrent appearance of ball lightning has never seemed accidental, as testified by the more than 750 sightings reported between 1900 and 2008 (fat red numbers in map 2). The mechanism that triggers ball lightning is presumed to derive from particular atmospheric conditions and the concomitant presence in the atmosphere of gas and ions, along with other phenomena such as natural radioactivity and electromagnetic anomalies generated, for example, by crust stress.

In the Po Valley Plain the abundance of hydrocarbons has resulted in intense extraction activity which began in the mid 1800s and continued until the 1950s. Nowadays, despite a drastic reduction, extraction of natural gas is still important, currently satisfying 48% of Italy's needs. Manifestations of hydrocarbons, in some cases spontaneous and restricted to a few areas, include the small mud volcanoes scattered along the Apennine belt on the margins of the Po Valley Plain.

Ball lightning has a surface tension that allows it to “float” in the air at different heights, with some staying close to the ground while others rise hundreds of meters from the surface, just as the coloring and shapes that they assume are not always the same. In fact, the combination of gases and free charges underlie the formation of plasmas and plasmoids are closely related to the formation of ball lightning. According to the theory of piezoelectricity certain silicate minerals, such as quartz, produce charged clouds and electric potentials through air ionization when they are subjected to crustal stress. One initial conclusion concerns the difference between areas with hydrocarbon deposits and those subject to tectonic stress.In the first case, the number of sightings is much higher and seems to depend on the dew point. In this situation, ball lightning appears at an apparent height in the order of hundreds of meters. Source: NCGT Journal, Vol. 4, No. 3 (Sep 2016).

DJIA 2017 | Presidential Cycle + Seasonal Pattern + Decennial Cycle

Seasonal Cycle (1900-2016) Jan 01 - Dec 31 = +6.99%
1st Year of the Presidential Cycle (2017) Jan 01 - Dec 31 = +5.48%
7th Year of the Decennial Cycle (2017) Jan 01 - Dec 31 = +4.82%
"The Sun's position by itself in relation to the stock market can show you trends that are more
or less active for each year, as the Sun degrees are generally fixed. They fall on about the
same date every year. So this is why some periods of the year would be more of a pattern."

Seasonality | DJIA | NDX | FTSE | DAX | HSI | NI225

Credits: Seasonal Charts

SPX vs 15 Degree Steps of Lunar Node to Lunar Apogee | 24th Harmonic

Upcoming aspects in this 18 Year Cycle:
Jan 12 (Thu) = 165 degrees, Mar 14 (Tue) = 180 degrees, Apr 28 (Fri), Jun 04 (Sun), Jul 16 (Sun),
Sep 17 (Sun), Oct 28 (Sat), Dec 02 (Sat), Jan 15, 2018 (Mon).
David McMinn (2016): 9/56 Year Cycle: Lunar North Node - Apogee Angles [5 p.]

Saturday, January 7, 2017

Harmony of the Spheres | Dance of the Planets

James Ferguson’s (1710-1776) representation of the apparent motion of the Sun, Mercury, and Venus from the Earth, based on similar diagrams by Giovanni Cassini (1625-1712) and  Roger Long (1680-1770). Taken from the "Astronomy" article in the first edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1771; Volume 1, Fig. 2 of Plate XL facing page 449). This geocentric diagram shows, from the location of the Earth, the Sun's apparent annual orbit, the orbit of Mercury for 7 years, and the orbit of Venus for 8 years, after which Venus returns to almost the same apparent position in relation to the Earth and Sun. In Arabic, Venus is called “El Zahra” - the flower. See HERE + HERE + HERE + HERE

Earth - Mercury Cycle.
This and all following graphics by John Martineau.
Earth - Venus Cycle:
Earth = 8 years x 365.256 days/year = 2,922.05 days
Venus = 13 years x 224.701 days/year = 2,921.11 days (ie. 99.9%)
Earth - Mars Cycle.
Earth - Jupiter Cycle.
Saturn - Uranus Cycle.
Jupiter - Saturn Cycle.
Venus - Mars Cycle.
The radius of the Moon compared to the Earth's is 3:11
Radius of Moon = 1,080 miles = 3 x 360
Radius of Earth = 3,960 miles = 11 x 360 = 33 x 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5
Radius of Earth plus Radius of Moon = 5,040 miles = 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 x 6 x 7 = 7 x 8 x 9 x 10

The ratio 3:11 is 27.3%, and the orbit of the Moon takes 27.3 days, which is also the average rotation period of a sunspot. The closest to farthest distance ratio that Venus and Mars each experiences in the Mars-Venus dance is also 3:11. The Earth orbits between them. The sizes of the Moon and the Earth is drawn to scale in the last illustration above, where the perimeters of the dotted square and the dotted circle are of the same length: The perimeter of the dotted red square is 4 x Earth’s diameter = 4 x 7,920 miles = 31,680 miles. The circumference of the dotted blue circle is 2 pi x radius = 2 x 3.142 x 5040 miles = 31,667 miles (ie. 99.9%).

Thursday, January 5, 2017

The Measure of the Circle | Math for Mystics

Pi (π) is the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter. 
As a fraction, its closest approximations are 22/7, 333/106 and 355/113.
Projection on the plane of the ecliptic of the parabolic
orbits of 72 comets, 1802. Engraving by Wilson Lowry after
Johann Elert Bode.
Circle of Fifths, and relationship of relative
minor keys to major key signatures.

"The circle is one of the noblest representations of Deity, in his noble works of human nature. It bounds, determines, governs, and dictates space, bounds latitude and longitude, refers to the Sun, Moon, and all the planets, in direction, brings to the mind thoughts of eternity, and concentrates the mind to imagine for itself the distance and space it comprehends. It rectifies all boundaries; it is the key to information of the knowledge of God; it points to each and every part of God's noble work."

John Davis (1845): The Measure of the Circle
[p. 12].